GERMANY: In 1980, German physicist Klaus von Klitzing made a groundbreaking discovery in the high-field magnet laboratory in Grenoble, France.
He found that in a two-dimensional electron gas, the resistance is quantized in units of h/e2, where h is Planck’s constant and e is the electric charge.
This discovery, known as the quantum Hall effect, opened up a new field of research in condensed matter physics and has since been recognised with a Nobel Prize in Physics.
The quantum Hall effect is a phenomenon in which the electrical resistance of two-dimensional material changes in specific, quantized steps in response to a magnetic field’s application.
This change in resistance can be used to measure the Hall coefficient, which is a measure of the material’s response to the magnetic field.
The quantization of the Hall effect was a surprising result, as, before its discovery, resistance was thought to be a continuous, smooth function.
Klaus von Klitzing was studying the Hall effect in a high magnetic field when he noticed that the resistance was not a smooth function but was quantized in specific steps.
This discovery was a significant breakthrough in the condensed matter physics field and has since been used to develop new technologies and materials with unique electrical properties.
The discovery of the quantum Hall effect was a major milestone in the field of physics, as it showed that the resistance of two-dimensional materials can be quantized in a magnetic field.
This finding has had a major impact on the development of new technologies and materials, including quantum computing and new materials for use in electronics and renewable energy.
Klaus von Klitzing was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1985 for his discovery of the quantum Hall effect.
In recognition of his contribution to the field of physics, the quantum Hall effect has been named after him.
Today, the quantum Hall effect is widely studied and is used in a variety of applications, including the development of new materials for electronics and renewable energy.
Researchers are also using the effect to study the properties of two-dimensional materials, including graphene and other new materials with unique electrical and mechanical properties.
The discovery of the quantum Hall effect by Klaus von Klitzing was a revolutionary moment in the field of physics. It has opened up new avenues of research and had a major impact on the development of new technologies and materials.
The recognition of this discovery with a Nobel Prize in Physics underscores the importance of Klaus von Klitzing’s contribution to the field of physics.
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