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Tuesday, October 3, 2023

Space Travel’s Impact on Astronauts’ Brains Unveiled in Recent Study

Unique changes in brain structure observed before and after space missions

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Russell Chattaraj
Russell Chattaraj
Mechanical engineering graduate, writes about science, technology and sports, teaching physics and mathematics, also played cricket professionally and passionate about bodybuilding.

UNITED STATES: The mysteries of space have captivated humanity for decades, with astronauts venturing beyond Earth’s atmosphere to explore the cosmos. However, a new study has revealed that the extraordinary journey to the stars takes a toll on the human brain, as researchers have identified unique changes occurring within the brains of astronauts during and after space travel.

In an investigation, brain scans of 30 astronauts were examined both before and after their space missions. The study, published in the esteemed journal Scientific Reports, sought to shed light on the effects of zero gravity on the brain, particularly during prolonged missions aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or NASA space shuttles.

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The researchers made a striking discovery, astronauts who embarked on space missions lasting at least six months experienced significant expansion of the cerebral ventricles, the fluid-filled spaces located in the center of the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid. This colorless and watery fluid safeguards the brain by cushioning it against sudden impacts and eliminating waste products.

The study’s lead author, Rachael Seidler, remarked, “We discovered that people’s ventricles grew bigger the longer they were in space. Our research reveals that it often takes three years between trips for the ventricles to fully recuperate in astronauts who make multiple trips to space.”

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Among the 30 astronauts examined, 8 had embarked on two-week missions, 18 had undertaken six-month missions, and 4 had spent approximately one year in space. The results indicated that the most substantial increase in ventricular size occurred when transitioning from a two-week mission to a six-month one. Seidler emphasized that no measurable change in ventricular volume was observed after only two weeks.

Interestingly, the study suggests that the enlargement of ventricles in astronauts is not caused by microgravity itself but rather by brain atrophy associated with age. Nonetheless, the impact of ventricular expansion on the health and cognitive function of space travelers remains unknown, requiring further long-term follow-up research.

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According to the researchers, the absence of Earth’s gravity plays a pivotal role in altering the brain. Seidler elaborated, stating, “It appears that this is a mechanical consequence. On Earth, we have valves in our circulatory systems that keep all of our fluids from pooling at our feet as a result of gravity. In contrast, fluids go towards the head in microgravity. The brain sits higher within the skull as a result of this fluid shift towards the head, which probably causes ventricular expansion.”

While these findings may raise concerns about the potential risks of long-duration space travel, there is a glimmer of hope for future Mars missions, where astronauts may spend up to two years in microgravity during the journey.

The study’s preliminary findings indicate that ventricular enlargement does not worsen after six months, suggesting that astronaut brain health could remain resilient during extended space travel. Nevertheless, additional research involving a larger group of astronauts and longer mission durations is necessary to validate these promising observations.

As humanity continues to venture further into space, understanding the effects of space travel on the human body and mind becomes paramount. The captivating study not only offers valuable insights into the physiological changes experienced by astronauts but also emphasizes the importance of prioritizing long-term health assessments for those who dedicate their lives to exploring the unknown.

While the final frontier remains a realm of endless possibilities, researchers strive to unravel its mysteries, ensuring the well-being and safety of those who venture beyond the confines of Earth.

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  • Russell Chattaraj

    Mechanical engineering graduate, writes about science, technology and sports, teaching physics and mathematics, also played cricket professionally and passionate about bodybuilding.

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